School-related gender-based violence (SRGBV) has been associated with poor attendance and retention and reduced learning outcomes, yet the evidence base is fragmented. Conceptualizations of SRGBV vary considerably, as do the indicators and methodologies used. Without an agreed-upon conceptual frame or common definitions for the various types of SRGBV, researchers and those in the international development community cannot fully understand the nature, extent, and impacts of SRGBV across countries and contexts. USAID Bureau for Africa—Education has commissioned a literature review intended to provide a framework for researchers examining SRGBV. This literature review provides a global overview of the common definitions of SRGBV, the nature of the investigations used to study SRGBV, and the common methodologies observed across studies.