What is effective teaching? Unfortunately, the majority of the evidence available to answer this question involves proxies for effective teaching, rather than actual assessment of teacher practices in classrooms. Examples of proxy indicators are teacher qualifications, content-specific knowledge, conditions of teaching and learning, teacher absenteeism, attrition and retention, and teacher remuneration. Data from these indicators frequently are collected and used to judge the relative effectiveness of teaching. By contrast, evidence from direct observation of classroom practices and pedagogy has been underemphasized in both policy and research.