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Ghana 2015 Early Grade Reading Assessment and Early Grade Mathematics Assessment: Report of Findings

Ghana 2015 Early Grade Reading Assessment and Early Grade Mathematics Assessment: Report of Findings


The National Education Assessment Unit (NEAU) of the Ghana
Education Service (GES) conducted a national Early Grade Reading
Assessment (EGRA) and Early Grade Mathematics Assessment
(EGMA) in July 2015. This was the second administration of EGRA
and EGMA in Ghana; the first took place in 2013, and both were
conducted as part of the USAID Partnership for Education: Testing
activity. Unlike other testing approaches in Ghana, such as the
National Education Assessment (NEA), the EGRA and EGMA were
administered orally by an assessor to a single pupil, rather than being
a paper-and-pencil, multiple-choice test administered to an entire
class of pupils. The purpose of the EGRA and EGMA is to provide
data about the current state of reading and mathematics performance
among a population of interest. In Ghana, this was Primary 2 (P2)
pupils in public schools. The data collected are useful for informing
stakeholder decisions about policy and practice.
The 2015 assessments were administered to a random sample of P2
pupils in public schools across all ten regions of the country. The final
sample included 738 schools and 7,311 pupils (3,645 males and
3,666 females). The EGRA was administered in the Ghanaian
language of instruction (LOI) at that school (Akuapem Twi, Asante
Twi, Dagaare, Dagbani, Dangme, Ewe, Ga, Gonja, Fante, Kasem, or
Nzema), as well as in English.
At each sampled school, ten pupils (five males and five females) were
randomly selected from a P2 classroom. Trained GES assessors
administered the two EGRAs, the EGMA, and an interview
questionnaire to each pupil individually. The pupil questionnaire
provided demographic information about the pupils. In addition, the
assessor interviewed the P2 teacher from whose classroom the
pupils were selected, to learn specific information about how LOI
factored into instructional practice.
Locally adapted versions of the EGRA and EGMA have been
administered in countries around the world. The EGRA and EGMA
instruments used in Ghana were developed in 2013 over three weeks
of workshops. International experts in early grade reading and math
joined Ghanaian experts in teaching, curriculum, and linguistics to
develop the instruments in accordance with Ghana’s P2 curriculum
14 | 2015 EGRA and EGMA in Ghana
and teaching and learning materials. The same experts convened
again in 2015 to revise the instruments such that the results would be
comparable across years.
The EGRA contained five subtasks that measured a range of literacy
skills, from prereading through reading with fluency and
comprehension. The subtasks were: listening comprehension, lettersound
identification, nonword decoding, oral passage reading, and
reading comprehension.
The EGMA contained six subtasks that measured a range of
numeracy skills, from procedural to conceptual. The subtasks were:
number identification, addition and subtraction level 1, quantity
discrimination, missing number, addition and subtraction level 2, and
word problems.
Ghana Education Service, National Education Assessment Unit
RTI International
Education Assessment and Research Centre
Date Published: 
Tuesday, November 1, 2016
1.58 MB