USAID and the Ministry of Education collaborated on the implementation of the first early grade reading assessment (EGRA) in Ethiopia in 2010. Drawing a sample of Grade 2 students from eight regions, the assessment covered six mother tongue (MT) languages, including: Af Somali, Afaan Oromo, Amharic, Hararigna, Sidamu Afoo, and Tigrinya. The results of that EGRA showed that the vast majority of students were reading well below the MOE’s minimum learning competency expectations. In response, the Ministry mobilized effort and enlisted partners to support the revision of the existing primary school curriculum to focus more explicitly on the acquisition of literacy in the early grades. USAID launched a program – Reading for Ethiopia’s Achievement Developed (READ) – to support the MOE’s efforts to improve the curriculum, materials and instruction of reading and writing in seven mother tongue languages in primary grades 1 through 8.