The approach described in this manual—and along with it the guidance for trainers, the materials for assessor trainees, and the instruments used in pilot administrations—has evolved in such a way that some preliminary clarifications of terminology and concepts may be helpful. The Local Education Monitoring Approach (LEMA) as it is presented in this toolkit was previously referred to by the name of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS). Original pilot applications of this approach, along with training exercises, reports, and papers, were conducted or produced under the name LQAS. Lot Quality Assurance Sampling, the name itself, represents only a specific random sampling methodology and small-sample analysis approach. The sampling technique was adapted and refined through multiple pilot applications within the education sector. At the same time, evaluation tools (described later in this manual) were designed to accompany the technique.