Educators, policy makers, and others abound the world are concerned about meeting the educational targets of the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and Education for All (EFA) with the approaching dealing of 2015. More children than ever are in school, but some reports indicate that the quality of education in many developing countries has actually dropped in recent years. To understand those trends, educational specialists will need to improved assessments of learning. The present volume provides a review of quality learning assessments, their status in terms of the empirical knowledge base, and some new ideas for improving their effectiveness, particularly for those children most in need. The main question addressed in this report may be summarized as follows: Can the available research on the assessment of learning (particularly regarding learning to read) contribute to a more effective way to improve educational outcomes in developing countries?